Cronin, J. T., J. D. Reeve, D. Xu, M. Xiao and H. N. Stevens. 2016. Variable prey development time suppresses predator-prey cycles and enhances stability. Ecology Letters 19:318-327.


Although theoretical models have demonstrated that predator-prey population dynamics can depend critically on age (stage) structure and the duration and variability in development times of different life stages, experimental support for this theory is nonexistent. We conducted an experiment with a host-parasitoid system to test the prediction that increased variability in the development time of the vulnerable host stage can promote interaction stability. Host-parasitoid microcosms were subjected to two treatments: Normal and High variance in the duration of the vulnerable host stage. In control and Normal-variance microcosms, hosts and parasitoids exhibited distinct population cycles. In contrast, insect abundances were 18-24% less variable in High- than Normal-variance microcosms. More significantly, periodicity in host-parasitoid population dynamics disappeared in the High-variance microcosms. Simulation models confirmed that stability in High-variance microcosms was sufficient to prevent extinction. We conclude that developmental variability is critical to predator-prey population dynamics and could be exploited in pest-management programs.

Keywords: age-structured populations, developmental variability, host-parasitoid microcosms, intra-specific trait variability, population cycles, predator-prey stability

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